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Angular Autoencoders For Dimensionality Reduction

Nestor Sanchez

Posted in dimensionality reduction

An angular autoencoder fits a closed path on a hypersphere. This induces a natural two-dimensional projection of the data
An angular autoencoder fits a closed path on a hypersphere. This induces a natural two-dimensional projection of the data

Using a neural network to encode the angular representation rather than the usual Cartesian representation of data can make it easier to capture important topological properties. With some geometric reasoning and a minor tweak at training time we can also endow the resulting encoded representation with a natural two-dimensional projection.

Autoencoders are used to create low-dimensional representations that compress as much information as possible from the original data; hopefully, the learned representation will be comprised of high-level features useful for any other statistical model that needs to handle the same data. What is fed to the autoencoder is the usual Cartesian representation, but if the data has some underlying structure, from disjoint clusters to some exotic lower-dimensional manifold, it might be easier to capture such structure if we work with angular features instead. In particular, encoding the angular features directly makes it straightforward to visualize the data in R2\mathbb{R}^2.


Assume we have data x1,...,xnRdx_1,...,x_n \in \mathbb{R}^d; we want to project this data to R2\mathbb{R}^2 while preserving as much information as possible; if we look at their polar representation

xi=(ri,ϕi),ri=xi2,ϕi=(ϕi,1,...,ϕi,d1)Rd1,i=1,...,nx_i = (r_i, \phi_i), \quad r_i = ||x_i||_2, \quad \phi_i = (\phi_{i,1},...,\phi_{i,d-1}) \in \mathbb{R}^{d-1}, \quad i=1,...,n\\

where the angular coordinates are constrained to

ϕi,k[0,π],k=1,...,d2ϕi,d1[0,2π]\phi_{i,k} \in [0,\pi], \quad k=1,...,d-2\\ \phi_{i,d-1} \in [0,2\pi]

we could use the original norms xi2||x_i||_2 as the radial component in the projections, and what is left is mapping the original angular features to the interval [0,2π][0,2\pi]; so, if we had a function Ψθ1()\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\cdot) that maps the angular representation to this interval, it would be straightforward to map xix_i to the plane as (xi2,Ψθ1(ϕi))(||x_i||_2,\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\phi_i)) in polar coordinates, or equivalently xi2(cos(Ψθ1(ϕi)),sin(Ψθ1(ϕi)))||x_i||_2 \cdot (\cos (\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\phi_i)), \sin (\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\phi_i))) in Cartesian coordinates; since angle spaces are periodic, Ψθ1\Psi_{\theta_{1}} would need to be periodic in the sense that Ψθ1(y)0\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(y) \approx 0 and Ψθ1(z)2π\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(z) \approx 2\pi only if yzy \approx z.

The reason why a high-quality projection with these characteristics must exist, even though it could seem too rigid at first, is because this is equivalent to finding a closed path on the hypersphere Sd1={xRd:x2=1}\mathbb{S}^{d-1} = \{x \in \mathbb{R}^{d}:||x||_2 = 1\} such that it follows closely the shape that our rescaled unit-norm data, D={zi=xi/xi2,i=1,...m}Sd1\mathcal{D} = \{z_i = x_i/||x_i||_2, i=1,...m\} \subset \mathbb{S}^{d-1}, induces on Sd1\mathbb{S}^{d-1}. To see this, let Ω\Omega be the seth of continuous, closed paths on Sd1\mathbb{S}^{d-1}; since they are one-dimensional, they can be characterized as

Ω={f:[0,2π]Sd1fC1,f(0)=f(2π)}\Omega = \{f:[0,2\pi] \mapsto \mathbb{S}^{d-1}| f \in C^1, f(0) = f(2\pi)\}

which is the set of all continuous, periodic functions from [0,2π][0,2\pi] to Sd1\mathbb{S}^{d-1}. It's not hard to see that there must be an element in Ω\Omega that goes through each point in D\mathcal{D}, that is, there is fΩf_* \in \Omega such that f(ti)=xi/xi2f_*(t_i) = x_i/||x_i||_2 for some t1,,2π)t_1,...t_n \in (0,2\pi), and conversely there should exist f1f_*^{-1} 1 such that f1(xi/xi2)=ti[0,2π],i=1,...,nf_*^{-1}(x_i/||x_i||_2) = t_i \in [0,2\pi], i=1,...,n. This tells us that the kind of projection we are looking at is not too restrictive and in fact has arbitrary flexibility; however, we aim to find a closed path that captures only the general shape of D\mathcal{D}, in this way giving us valuable information when projected onto R2\mathbb{R}^2.

An autoencoder architecture can help us find such path. Ψθ1\Psi_{\theta_1} would be the encoder section of the network, and we would also have a decoder Φθ2\Phi_{\theta_2} such that Φθ2(Ψθ1(ϕi))ϕi,i=1,...,m\Phi_{\theta_{2}}(\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\phi_i)) \approx \phi_i, i=1,...,m, with the additional restriction that Φθ2(0)=Φθ2(2π)\Phi_{\theta_{2}}(0) = \Phi_{\theta_{2}}(2\pi). As usual, the loss function would be the squared reconstruction error, so for a minibatch x1,...,xkx_1,...,x_k:

L(X;θ1,θ2)=1ki=1k(ϕiΦθ2(Ψθ1(ϕi)))2L(X;{\theta_{1}},{\theta_{2}}) = \frac{1}{k} \sum_{i=1}^k \left( \phi_i - \Phi_{\theta_{2}}(\Psi_{\theta_{1}}(\phi_i)) \right)^2

Since the loss is minimized by gradient descent methods, nothing ensures that Φθ2(0)=Φθ2(2π)\Phi_{\theta_{2}}(0) = \Phi_{\theta_{2}}(2\pi); this is not easy to enforce directly, so at training we must 'steer' the fitted path to fulfill the constraint. This is done by adding an extra term in the loss function at each iteration:

L(X;θ1,θ2)L(X;θ1,θ2)+1k(Φθ2(0)Φθ2(2π))2L(X;{\theta_{1}},{\theta_{2}}) \leftarrow L(X;{\theta_{1}},{\theta_{2}}) + \frac{1}{k} (\Phi_{\theta_{2}}(0) - \Phi_{\theta_2}(2\pi))^2

this term could cause instability because both terms Φθ1(0),Φθ1(2π)\Phi_{\theta_{1}}(0), \Phi_{\theta_{1}}(2\pi) are 'chasing each other', but we can use the same trick as in Q-learning networks and take only the gradient with respect to one of both terms at each SGD step. In practice this is enough to ensure closedness, to an acceptable degree.


Overall, the model architecture is almost identical to that of a regular autoencoder, except for three points:

  1. The input must be the angular representation of the data described in the previous section
  2. The encoding is one-dimensional and its activation function is a rescaled sigmoid
  3. The output units also have rescaled sigmoid activation to enforce the angles' domain restrictions

The following is a diagram of this architecture:


To make this architecture useful for arbitrarily large input sizes one has to be careful when handling the conversion to and from Cartesian and polar coordinates, since the latter involve long products of trigonometric functions that might potentially cause numeric underflows, but this can be done accurately by using logarithms and keeping track of the signs separately.

Implementation details

I implemented this model with batch normalization layers; since we are trying to compress and then reconstruct data angles, it makes sense that preserving the 'centeredness' of the data all the way through is beneficial to the model, although sometimes this compresses almost all of the data to a single quadrant of the plane, which can be a bit annoying, but overall the model performs better in the sense that projected clusters are clearer.

I also use a Huber loss instead of a quadratic loss, which I found prevents some awkward behavior when enforcing the closedness restrictions and generally makes the projections better (in the examples I tried anyway). Finally, in the examples below I used an Adam optimizer with α=0.001\alpha=0.001.

A toy example

We can look at an example in R3\mathbb{R}^3 to grasp how all of this works. Let's look at how the model fits to synthetic data from a Gaussian mixture model with 5 components. In particular, what the associated path looks like:


What we see is the Gaussian mixtures data projected (in pink) on the unit sphere in R3\mathbb{R}^3, which end up creating some spotted pattern on it. We can also see the fitted closed path in orange, going through each cluster. The way we map this to R2\mathbb{R}^2 is, for any pink observation, the encoder will give us a t[0,2π]t \in [0,2\pi] for which the orange path is closest to the observation; this tt is taken as the angular coordinate of the observation in R2\mathbb{R}^2, while its original norm is used as its projection's norm. Once we do this, we get the figure below.


The model had a single 50-neuron hidden layer in both the encoder and decoder; the results suggest that if there are clusters in the data, whatever shape they might have, it should be relatively easy for an angular autoencoder to keep them separated in the projection.

Reuters data

The first dataset I tried this on is the Reuters dataset, which has close to 20,000 news articles from the 1980s; I took the 3,000 longest articles, since a lot of them were very short and had mostly quantitative information; to process the data I used SKlearn's CountVectorizer, dropping words with less than 5% or more than 90% frequency, and then used NLTK's Porter stemming algorithm, which resulted in a vocabulary of 365 words. Looking at the texts, it appears that most if not all articles I kept were about Finance and Economics, so the vocabulary is relatively small.

Reuters data: ordinary autoencoder

To have a baseline model, I fitted a regular autoencoder to the data; the architecture that I used for this consisted in 3-layered encoders and decoders, each layer with 500 neurons; batch normalization layers were used too in the baseline autoencoder models to make comparisons fair. The model was fitted for 300 epochs using an Adam optimizer. Below we see the results of this model: the projections to the left, and the loss trace to the right.


Reuters data: Angular autoencoder

The architecture of this model was exactly the same than for the regular autoencoder used above, besides the fact that we now have one encoding neuron instead of 2; in the figure below, we see the projected data to the right, and the loss trace to the left.


I ran a few quick tests to see what the clusters meant, and they made sense: they seem to be related to international trade, legal disputes, international economy and so on, but I did not go much deeper. The supplementary document labels from NLTK are meant for prediction tasks and are too fine-grained for this partitioning, so they aren't very helpful when exploring the clusters. Still, I think it's remarkable that under the same conditions than a regular autoencoder in the figure above, this model managed to get so many cleanly split clusters in the data.

Another dataset I wanted to try this on is a corpus of transcripts from cases heard by the U.S. Supreme Court between the years 2000 and 2013; the reason is that I used this data in my Bachellor's dissertation, and at the time I ended up using methods such as LDA to find their topics, but a lot of them required to specify the number of topics to look for, so I thought it would be interesting to try this model instead and see what I get. The data consist of 930 documents, each one with between 5,000 and 15,000 words. The preprocessing was exactly the same than for the Reuters data above, which resulted in a vocabulary of 2,440 words.

The baseline autoencoder had a 3-layered encoder and decoder with sizes (1600,400,100), which were reversed in the case of the decoder. The model was fitted for 500 epochs and the results are below:


It seems that the model hasn't fully converged after 500 epochs, but to do a fair comparison I still stopped it there.

Again, the angular model's architecture was identical to the regular autoencoder used above. The results are below:


For this particular model I dropped the closedness constraint, since for this data it looked like enforcing it degraded the number of clusters found by the model. In principle, dropping the constraint should be fine, as long as we keep in mind that projections in the vicinity of zero-radian angles could come from 2 very different places in the original space, one at each end of the (open) fitted path, but that is not a problem in this case. According to this model, there are 7 different kinds of documents, which I find insteresting, since in my Bachellor's dissertation I only found with 5 groups!

Hand posture data

As a final test I grabbed a hand postures dataset from the UCI repository. The data has 38 dimensions, and is the result from motion cameras recording markers in a left-hand glove, when 12 users were asked to perform 5 specific positions with it. There are some missing data due to occlusion, so I dropped observations that had missing values in any of of the first 11 markers, which left me with some 15,000 observations;

Hand posture data: ordinary autoencoder

In this case the layers in the encoder and decoder were of size (50,30,10). The results are below:


The data in the above figure was sampled down to 3,000 points, and the figure is zoomed to where most points are.

Hand posture data: angular autoencoder

This model had the same architeture as the model above too:


The data was again sampled down to 3,000 points to be able to see their general topology, and the figure was also zoomed in to where most point were, since there were some strong outliers. There are some stripes of data that are relatively well separated from the rest. Since this model associates different angles to different clusters, each one of this 'rays' should correspond to a separate cluster in the data.


A one-dimensional encoding allow us to map data to R2\mathbb{R}^2, but the model can also find multidimensional encoded representations; if we place multiple neurons at the bottleneck layer, and make their activation functions enforce the angular space restrictions (just as we did with the model's output layer), then the model would be effectively taking a hypersphere and projecting it on a low-dimensional hypersphere; in the one-dimensional case we get an irregular closed path, as we saw, but it is hard for me to think about what the multi-dimensional equivalent would look like; these models wouldn't be too useful for data visualization anymore, but it could be an interesting idea to combine with variational autoencoders, for example.


An angular autoencoder fits a closed path on a multidimensional hypersphere to the projection that data induce in such hypersphere. This property can make it easier to capture some data topologies, such as clusters, compared to traditional autoencoders and other models. This property also makes it straightforward to project the data to R2\mathbb{R}^2, as we can 'unfold' such path taking is as the angular space in R2\mathbb{R}^2.

Source code

You can get the model's Pytorch code here. You can also replicate these results by cloning the repo and running:

./autoencoders/py/experiments/ # install dependencies with pipenv first!

1 If the closed path on Sd1\mathbb{S}^{d-1} given by ff crosses the same point zz many times then we may define f1(z)=min{t[0,1]:f(t)=z}f^{-1}(z) =\min\{t \in [0,1]: f(t) = z\}, but getting bogged down in real analysis is not the point!